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What are the regions favorable to the discovery of hydrocarbons in Quebec?

As we have seen in the posted note #1on the formation of hydrocarbons, two important points must be considered:

– The Source Rock: where hydrocarbons are formed

– The Reservoir Rock: where hydrocarbons are accumulating

In order to have a Source Rock, it is necessary to have a low-agitated sediment deposit medium, deprived of oxygen and with good transport of organic matter such as in a river delta or a sedimentary basin edge.  For the Reservoir Rocks, it is a bit more complex because they must be in the migration path of the hydrocarbons escaping from the Source Rock to be able to trap them, they must have a good porosity and also must be in a trapping situation:

  • Stratigraphic Trap:Superposition/alternation of impermeable and porous rocks
  • Structural Trap:A fold in the succession of rocks or a fault system that shifts the porous and impermeable rocks creating a natural plug 
  • Mixed Trap:associated with the formation or intrusion of a salt diapir (rising of the salt to the surface as observed in the Îles-de-la-Madeleine).

What do we have in Quebec ?

Have the above conditions met here in the past? Based on different scientific articles, on the MERN reports and even on sites more accessible for the uninitiated (like Planet Earth), the answer is unanimous: Yes, Quebec presents several regions with a potential for the discovery of hydrocarbons.

Quebec is divided into four geological regions: the Grenville-Churchill-Superior, the St. Lawrence Lowlands, the Appalachians and, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, the Îles-de-la-Madeleine basin.

The first geological region located mainly in the northern part of Quebec is that of the Grenville, Churchill and Superior, which contains mostly very old rocks (several billion years). They may be conducive to mineralization but not to the presence of hydrocarbons because the rocks in this province are mainly crystalline and non-sedimentary.

The second geological region is now better known for having experienced a recent conflict situation. Indeed, the St. Lawrence Lowlandsregion contains a natural gas-rich Source Rockformation, the Utica shale Formation. Because it is a Source Rock it is complicated to produce the gas because it  requires hydraulic fracturing to create porosity.  However, there is also in the Lowlandsthe Trenton Formationthat is also potentially interesting. This formation is best known by our Ontario and American neighbours with proven reserves and produced discoveries. It is a Reservoir Rockwith good porosity which is in contact with the Source Rock (Utica) and it does not require fracking to get the resource.

The third region corresponds to the Appalachians. This old mountain range is conducive to more conventional discoveries such as in Gaspésie-Bas-Saint-Laurent, that of Galt, Bourque, Haldiman and the Massé structure, which present structural reservoirs that are often complex. These reservoirs are found in several formations such as Forillon, Westpoint and Sayabecand do not require hydraulic fracturing.

The fourth region is located in the marine environment of the Îles-de-la-Madeleineregion, where a very deep basin exists containing Source Rocksand numerous Reservoir Rocks.  The exploration of the years 1970 to 1980, however, did not produce any discovery of hydrocarbons.

Squatex Resources and Energy is advantageously positioned in two of these regions with high potential: The Lowlandsand Lower St. Lawrence(Appalachians).

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